Define *Linear momentum*

the product of mass and velocity

Define net force on a body

equal to the rate of change of momentum

Define impulse of a force

Area under a force/time graph.

Change in momentum

Define a perfectly elastic collision

A collision which results in no change/loss of kinetic energy

Define an inelastic collision

Total energy is conserved though some loss of kinetic energy (during collision). The magnitude of the impulse on each object is the same.

Define the radian

The angle where the arc of a circle equals the radius

Define gravitational field strength

Force per unit mass (at a point in a gravitational field)

Define the period of an object describing a circle

The time taken for the object to describe a complete circle/orbit

Define a geostationary orbit of a satellite

Equatorial orbit

Same period as Earth (fixed point above the Earth’s surface)

Define displacement

Is the distance of a body from the equilibrium position and is directed from the start to end point

Define amplitude

The maximum displacement

Define period

Time taken to compete one oscillation/cycle

Define frequency

Number of oscillations/cycles per unit time

Define angular frequency

Product of 2π x frequency or 2π/period

Define phase difference

The angle, in radians between subsequent wave peaks

Define simple harmonic motion

Force/acceleration is (directly) proportional to displacement (from the equilibrium position) and is directed towards the equilibrium position.

Define pressure of a gas

Collisions with surface of large numbers of particles travelling randomly exerts a force (or each collision has a change of momentum)

Pressure = Force / Area

Define internal energy

The sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system

Define specific heat capacity

The amount of thermal energy required to raise 1kg of substance through one degree Kelvin.

Define the newton

The force which gives a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1 ms-2

Define the Kilowatt-hour

1kWh is the energy used/provided by a 1 kW device in 1 hour

State the uses of geostationary satellites

Communication

Weather

State Newton's three laws of motion

1st: A body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity unless acted upon by a force

2nd: Force is proportional to rate of change of momentum

3rd: When one body exerts a force upon another, the other body exerts an equal but opposite force on the first body.

State the principle of conservation of momentum

(linear momentum) Total momentum is conserved.

For a closed system / no external forces

State Newton’s law of gravitation

The attraction of two masses is directly proportional to the product of their mass and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart/separation

State Boyle’s law

Pressure is inversely proportional to volume for a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature

State the effect of temperature on total internal energy

As temperature decreases, so does total internal energy; absolute zero is the temperature at which a substance has minimum internal energy.

State the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases;

Volume of particles negligible compared to volume of container OR molecules much smaller than distance between them.

No intermolecular forces (except during collision) OR molecules only have kinetic energy.

Elastic collisions

Particles travel at a constant, rapid velocity (in straight lines) between collisions OR effect of gravity is small

Time of collision is much smaller than time between collision.

Gas consists of a large number of molecules moving randomly

State what is meant by a "mole"

One mole of any substance contains 6.02 × 10^{23} particles and that 6.02 × 10^{23} mol-1 is the Avogadro constant N_{A}

Explain that F = ma is a special case of Newton’s Second Law

When the mass is constant, the rate of change of momentum ([change in mass] x [change in velocity] / time) can be expressed as mass x acceleration.